К выбору типа лестничной конструкции следует подойти взвешенно, учитывая планировку и габариты дома, возраст жильцов и дизайн помещения. Необходимо заранее определить материал изготовления, габариты конструкции и то, как будет использоваться пространство под лестницей.
Каждый тип лестничного сооружения имеет свои особенности в плане установки и использования. К числу наиболее популярных лестниц для дома относятся следующие конструкции.
Маршевая лестница проста в изготовлении и монтаже, но занимает большую площадь в комнате. Такую конструкцию можно разместить вдоль стены или установить посредине помещения. Прямая конструкция не подходит для маленьких домов, где на счету каждый квадратный метр. Ее удачной альтернативой является поворотная лестница на второй этаж. Своими руками создать такой подъем не сложно, главное выполнить правильные расчеты.
Поворотные лестницы обладают рядом достоинств:
Важно! Лестница поворотной конфигурации на 90 обычно размещается в углу. Вывести поворот можно на любом участке. Направление движения для идущего человека практически незаметно и не снижает удобство передвижения.
Поворотные лестницы бывают двух типов: с площадкой или забежными ступенями. При выборе надо учесть, что чем меньше число поворотных ступеней, тем удобнее перемещение по ним.
Винтовые лестницы незаменимы при обустройстве ограниченного пространства. Минусы конструкции: низкая пропускная способность и сложности в подъеме крупных предметов.
Интересный вариант комбинированная лестница с элементами маршевой и винтовой конструкции. Смотрится очень красиво и изысканно.
Основные требования к лестницам
Угловые лестницы проектируются с учетом общих требований:
Кроме существующих нормативов, при планировании и расчете лестницы желательно учитывать советы профессионалов:
Конструкция поворотной лестницы
Все конструктивные элементы лестницы можно разделить на три группы:
К несущим составляющим относят:
Несущая конструкция основа лестницы, которая принимает на себя вес остальных элементов и нагрузку от передвижения по ней людей.
Ступени состоят из проступи и подступенька. В поворотных лестницах на 90 используются забежные ступени или промежуточная площадка.
Ограждающие элементы обеспечивают безопасность передвижения. Система ограждения включает:
Важно! Согласно строительным нормам высота перил должна быть в диапазоне 86-110 см.
Расчет лестницы на второй этаж своими руками
Выполнить расчет и создать схему лестницы на второй этаж своими руками можно разными способами:
Для создания чертежа необходимо подготовить лист миллиметровки, простой карандаш и линейку. На бумаги будет отображен подробный план лестничной конструкции в проекции. С помощью схемы можно будет точно установить нужные размеры.
Чтобы сделать расчет лестницы руками дачи второго этажа надо определиться с основными параметрами:
Для построения чертежа понадобятся базовые параметры лестницы:
Делаем лестницу на второй этаж своими руками: подробная инструкция
Подготовка необходимых материалов и инструментов
Древесина не утрачивает популярность в производстве лестниц и сегодня, несмотря на появление большого количества современных строительных материалов. Для изготовления лестничной конструкции рекомендуется использовать твердые породы древесины:
Совет. Сделать лестницу на второй этаж своими руками можно из недорогой древесины, например, сосны. Главное выбрать качественный материал без сучков. Со временем из-за температурного колебания может произойти незначительная деформация лестничной конструкции. В результате сучки могут выпасть, что повлечет за собой ослабление конструкции.
Итак, из материалов понадобятся:
Чтоб построить лестницу на второй этаж своими руками надо подготовит следующие инструменты:
Важно! Работа с электроинструментом требует строго соблюдения техники безопасности. Необходимо пользоваться защитными средствами, не держать работающий инструмент за шнур и следить за положением провода.
Изготовление и монтаж простой лестницы на второй этаж своими руками
Этап 1. Изготовление косоуров. Работы выполняются в следующей последовательности:
Этап 2. Установка косоуров. Порядок выполнения работы:
Этап 3. Вырезание забежных ступеней. Для поворотной конструкции на 90 можно использовать три ступени. Изготовить эти элементы можно из доски размером 90*90 см, толщина 4 см.
Этап 4. Сборка лестничной конструкции. Алгоритм действий:
Этап 5. Установка перил выполняется в такой последовательности:
Совет. Для безопасной ходьбы по лестнице рекомендуется устанавливать балясины на каждой ступени. Это особенно актуально, если в доме есть дети.
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