Винтовая лестница своими руками


В первую очередь винтовые лестницы подходят для небольших помещений с низкими потолками. Они визуально увеличивают высоту, компактно смотрясь даже в центре комнаты. Это незаменимый вариант для мансард или для обеспечения прохода к редко используемому техническому выходу. К тому же они не съедают значительную часть пространства, необходимую для размещения маршевых конструкций.

Винтовая лестница своими руками

Вторая причина, по которой выбирается винтовая лестница цена ее будет намного ниже, чем у маршевых, размещенных на этом же месте, хотя при этом смотреться она будет намного выигрышнее, придавая помещению особенность и оригинальность. Винтовые металлические лестницы, деревянные или стеклянные, с перилами и без с помощью них можно воплотить в жизнь самые смелые свои фантазии, наполняя жилище индивидуальностью и вызывая у гостей изумление и восхищение.

О чем стоит знать минусы винтовых лестниц

При всей своей красоте винтовые лестницы не очень удобны. Они не позволяют транспортировать на следующий этаж крупные предметы мебели, шкафы, да что скрывать, даже с тяжелыми сумками взобраться на нее очень проблематично. Частое кружение по ней в течение дня может утомить и вызвать раздражение. Поэтому они редко используются в качестве основных лестничных проемов, а скорее, как элемент декора или для входа в редко посещаемые комнаты, такие как, например, спальня.

Винтовая лестница своими руками

Основные виды винтовых лестниц

Ступени винтовых лестниц фиксируются радиально, образуя лестничный винт. Если рассмотреть его горизонтальный срез, то он либо многоугольный, либо круглый. Обычно многоугольная форма выбирается в том случае, если планируется монтаж лестницы рядом со стеной. Это позволяет еще больше сэкономить пространство. При расположении в центре комнаты лучше использовать круглые лестничные проемы.

По конструкции винтовой лестницы можно выделить следующие типы:

  • с опорой ступеней на стены, расположенные по периметру, и на опорную стойку;
  • с защемлением ступеней в опорной стойке;
  • с опиранием ступеней на гнутые тетивы или ограждение;
  • с опиранием ступеней на опорную стойку.

 

Правила монтажа удобной и безопасной винтовой лестницы

Чтобы снизить неудобства и добиться максимального комфорта при эксплуатации, необходимо на всех этапах изготовления винтовых лестниц, от расчетов до монтажа, аккуратно соблюдать все правила и рекомендации специалистов.

Расчет винтовой лестницы

Любая винтовая лестница своими руками будет безопасна только в том случае, если все расчеты будут выполнены правильно. Как правило, большинство лестниц имеют ширину равную 0,8-0,9 метра. Проведем примерные расчеты конструкции высотой, равной 3 м, и шириной — 0,9 м. Она будет расположена на центральной стойке диаметром 0,25 м.

Для начала определим общий диаметр планируемой лестницы. Для этого берем две ширины ступеней и прибавляем к ним диаметр стойки:

2*0,9+0,25=2,05 м.

Чертим на листе бумаги окружность с полученным диаметром и в нее вписываем еще одну, обозначающую траекторию движения поднимающегося по лестнице человека. Радиус этой окружности находится путем деления суммы ширины лестницы и диаметра опорной стойки пополам.

(0,9+0,25)/2=0,575 м.

Переходим к определению необходимого количества ступеней на один виток. Для этого используем среднюю величину ширины ступени, равную 0,2 м, на которую мы разделим длину окружности траектории движения человека.

2*3,14*0,575/0,2=18,055

Получаем, что нам понадобится на каждый виток 18 ступеней.

 

Теперь нужно определить их высоту. Окружность лестницы делим на 18 равных частей. Высота первой и последней ступени витка должны различаться на высоту человека. Учитывая толщину ступеней 0,05 м, среднюю высоту человека 1,85 и оставив небольшой запас в 10 см, получаем высоту каждого витка:

1,85 м + 0,05 м + 0,1 м=2 м.

Отсюда легко вычислить высоту каждой ступени 2 м /18=0,11м и общее количество ступеней (делим высоту лестницы на высоту ступени) 3/0,11=27,3. Значит, нам нужно будет 27 ступеней.

Чтобы вычислить окончательную высоту каждой ступени, снова делим высоту лестницы, но уже на количество ступеней: 3/27=0,11. В нашем случае мы получили такое же значение, но чаще выходит чуть скорректированная величина.

Изготовление лестницы своими руками

Конечно, гораздо легче купить винтовые лестницы готовые, но что может сравниться с удовольствием, которое хозяин, самостоятельно изготовивший все элементы конструкции и установивший их, будет получать при каждом подъеме или спуске.

Если вы выбираете деревянные ступени, то лучше, если это будет бук или дуб. В строительных магазинах можно приобрести уже готовые прямоугольные ступени и быстро переделать их под свой размер. После этого острые кромки обязательно нужно обработать наждачной бумагой. Для оригинальных интерьеров, выполненных в определенной цветовой гамме, можно покрасить ступени краской. Если же важно подчеркнуть натуральность материала, то достаточно будет покрыть их несколькими слоями паркетного лака. Тут следует знать, что наносить лаковое покрытие можно только после обработки дерева морилкой. После высыхания к каждой ступени крепятся втулки, с помощью которых они будут держаться у опорного столба.

Винтовая лестница своими руками

Следующий элемент винтовых лестниц балясины. Их можно изготовить из деревянных стержней или металлических прутьев или приобрести уже готовые. При изготовлении балясин одну нужно сделать несколько большего размера. Она пойдет на первую ступень и установится на пол. Это позволит усилить прочность всей конструкции.

Гораздо сложнее справиться с изготовлением перил. Можно установить прямые брусья, но такие авангардные конструкции смотрятся эффектно лишь в соответствующем окружении. Более предпочтителен гнутый вариант, но в то же время он наиболее трудоемок.

Дело в том, что деревянные тетивы очень проблематично согнуть. Деревянную заготовку нужно выдерживать в кипятке до полного размягчения материала, а уже после этого она сгибается в необходимых местах. Не всегда удается сделать это с первого раза. Есть более современный способ склеивание тонких ламелей между собой, это позволит добиться изгиба любой крутизны.

 

Очень красиво смотрятся винтовые лестницы кованые. Такие конструкции стоят недешево, но, как правило, оправдывают эти затраты своей эффектностью.

 

Установка винтовой лестницы

Переходим к сборке подготовленных элементов в одно целое. Все ступени нанизываются на стойку, которая потом крепится к перекрытию и полу. Ступени располагаются таким образом, чтобы они перекрывали друг друга минимум на 5 см. После выставления положения каждая ступень фиксируется при помощи больцев, а с их широкой стороны устанавливаются балясины или тетива.

 

Отделка винтовой лестницы

Вариантов отделки винтовых лестниц огромное количество. Здесь все ограничивается только фантазией каждого человека. Главное, чтобы отделка полностью соответствовала стилю лестницы и помещения. Ступени можно облицевать плиткой, установить изготовленные из стекла и пластика, задрапировать всю конструкцию красивыми шторами, балясины и перила украсить цветными лампами, создающими чарующую игру света и теней.При самостоятельной установке винтовых лестниц следует помнить, что от правильности ее сборки зависит безопасность всей вашей семьи. Пренебрежение правилами может закончиться трагически. Высокая степень надежности обеспечивается только при изготовлении лестницы настоящими профессионалами.


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